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Building and flashing images on NXP S32G

The process to build an AutoSD image and flash it onto a S32G board has several steps:

  1. Update the board firmware.
    1. Patch the u-boot-nodtb.bin binary.
    2. Patch the second boot loader (SBL) binary.
  2. Build the AutoSD image.
  3. Build the NXP kernel.
    1. Install the NXP kernel into the AutoSD image.
    2. Install the boot loader into the AutoSD image.
  4. Flash the image onto an SD card and boot the system.

Updating your S32G firmware

Before flashing an AutoSD image onto the S32G board, you must update the NXP firmware by installing some patches to the u-boot-nodtb.bin and second boot loader (SBL) binaries.

Patching the U-Boot binary

Update the u-boot-nodtb.bin binary and enable the default distro settings.

Prerequisites

  • An AArch64 system with internet access
  • The make tool
  • The patch tool

Procedure

  1. Clone the u-boot vendor repository:

    git clone https://github.com/nxp-auto-linux/u-boot
    
  2. Change to the u-boot directory:

    cd u-boot
    
  3. Create a patch file called config.diff that contains the following content:

    cat <<EOF > config.diff
    diff --git a/configs/s32g399ardb3_defconfig b/configs/s32g399ardb3_defconfig
    
    index 38399e2a6e..dda5fc35e9 100644
    --- a/configs/s32g399ardb3_defconfig
    +++ b/configs/s32g399ardb3_defconfig
    @@ -1,3 +1,4 @@
    CONFIG_ARM=y
    CONFIG_ARCH_S32G3=y
    CONFIG_SD_BOOT=y
    +CONFIG_DISTRO_DEFAULTS=y
    EOF
    
  4. Apply the patch:

    patch -p1 < config.diff
    

    Note

    If the patch fails due to merge conflicts, then make the changes manually and build the file. Lines marked with + are additions; lines marked with - are deletions.

  5. Build the u-boot-nodtb.bin binary:

    make s32g399ardb3_defconfig
    make -j$(nproc)
    

Next steps Now that the u-boot-nodtb.bin binary is updated, you can patch the SBL binary.

Patching the second boot loader binary

After you patch the u-boot-nodtb.bin binary, you must also patch the second boot loader (SBL) binary fip.s32. This patch updates the values of the TF_LDFLAGS and FIP_ALIGN parameters. The updated fip.s32 binary is used during the Installing the NXP kernel into the AutoSD image procedure.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Clone the arm-trusted-firmware vendor repository:

    git clone https://github.com/nxp-auto-linux/arm-trusted-firmware.git
    
  2. Change to the arm-trusted-firmware directory:

    cd arm-trusted-firmware
    
  3. Create a patch file called atf.diff that contains the following content:

    cat << EOF > atf.diff
    diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
    
    index e7194a73f..2c9aa6f68 100644
    --- a/Makefile
    +++ b/Makefile
    @@ -408,7 +408,7 @@ TF_LDFLAGS += $(TF_LDFLAGS_$(ARCH))
    # LD = gcc (used when GCC LTO is enabled)
    else ifneq ($(findstring gcc,$(notdir $(LD))),)
    # Pass ld options with Wl or Xlinker switches
    -TF_LDFLAGS += -Wl,--fatal-warnings -O1
    +TF_LDFLAGS += -O1
    TF_LDFLAGS += -Wl,--gc-sections
    ifeq ($(ENABLE_LTO),1)
    ifeq (${ARCH},aarch64)
    @@ -425,7 +425,7 @@ TF_LDFLAGS += $(subst --,-Xlinker --,$(TF_LDFLAGS_$(ARCH)))
    
    # LD = gcc-ld (ld) or llvm-ld (ld.lld) or other
    else
    -TF_LDFLAGS += --fatal-warnings -O1
    +TF_LDFLAGS += -O1
    TF_LDFLAGS += --gc-sections
    # ld.lld doesn't recognize the errata flags,
    # therefore don't add those in that case
    diff --git a/plat/nxp/s32/s32_common.mk b/plat/nxp/s32/s32_common.mk
    index 155670bdb..f862ed95a 100644
    --- a/plat/nxp/s32/s32_common.mk
    +++ b/plat/nxp/s32/s32_common.mk
    @@ -462,7 +462,7 @@ ${MKIMAGE_FIP_CONF_FILE}: ${BL2_W_DTB_SIZE_FILE} ${FIP_HDR_SIZE_FILE} add_to_fip
    T_SIZE=0x$$($(call hexbc, $${BL2_W_DTB_SIZE}, +, $${HDR_SIZE})); \
    echo "DATA_FILE SIZE $$T_SIZE" >> $@
    
    -FIP_ALIGN := 16
    +FIP_ALIGN := 64
    all: add_to_fip
    add_to_fip: fip ${BL2_W_DTB}
    $(eval FIP_MAXIMUM_SIZE_10 = $(shell printf "%d\n" ${FIP_MAXIMUM_SIZE}))
    EOF
    
  4. Apply the patch:

    patch -p1 < atf.diff
    

    Note

    If the patch fails due to merge conflicts, make the changes manually and then build the file. Lines marked with + are additions; lines marked with - are deletions.

  5. Build the SBL binary:

    make ARCH=aarch64 PLAT=s32g399ardb3 \
         BL33=<path-to-uboot>/u-boot-nodtb.bin
    

Next steps Now that the fip.s32 binary is updated, you can build the AutoSD image.

Building and flashing an AutoSD image on S32G

To make an image to flash onto the S32G you must complete the following steps:

  1. Build the AutoSD image
  2. Install the NXP kernel and second boot loader into the image

You can then flash this image onto an SD card, insert the SD card into the S32G, and boot the system.

Building the AutoSD image

Follow these instructions to build the AutoSD image for your S32G board.

Prerequisites

  • An AArch64 system with internet access

Procedure

  1. Clone the sample-images repository:

    git clone --recursive https://gitlab.com/CentOS/automotive/sample-images.git
    

    Note

    Ensure that you include the --recursive option so that the clone operation includes the submodules within the repository.

  2. Change to the automotive-image-builder directory:

    cd automotive-image-builder
    
  3. Build the image using your image name as the target:

    automotive-image-builder --container build --distro autosd --mode package --target s32g_vnp_rdb3 --export image ../images/developer.mpp.yml
    autosd-s32g_vnp_rdb3-developer-regular.img
    

Next steps Now that you have built the autosd-s32g_vnp_rdb3-developer-regular.img image, install the NXP kernel into it.

Installing the NXP kernel into the AutoSD image

At the time of publication, the AutoSD image is not supported on the S32G board without modifications. To create a bootable AutoSD image for the S32G board, you must manually install the NXP kernel and second boot loader (SBL) binary into the AutoSD image.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Build the NXP vendor kernel:

    git clone https://github.com/nxp-auto-linux/linux.git
    cd linux
    make s32cc_defconfig
    # This command is required to boot from AutoSD default boot manager
    
    scripts/config -e CONFIG_EFI
    make -j$(nproc)
    
  2. Set the helper environment variables:

    IMAGE=../autosd-s32g_vnp_rdb3-developer-regular.img
    image=$(basename $IMAGE)
    loopdev="$(losetup --show -fP $IMAGE)"
    kernelversion="$(cat include/config/kernel.release)"
    
  3. Create a temporary directory and mount the third and fourth partitions of the AutoSD image as block devices:

    mkdir tmpdir
    sudo mount ${loopdev}p4 ./tmpdir/
    sudo mount ${loopdev}p3 ./tmpdir/boot/
    
  4. Build the NXP kernel:

    sudo make INSTALL_MOD_PATH=./tmpdir modules_install
    sudo make INSTALL_DTBS_PATH=./tmpdir/boot/dtb-${kernelversion} dtbs_install
    
  5. Copy the NXP kernel to the AutoSD image that you mounted in ./tmpdir:

    sudo cp arch/arm64/boot/Image ./tmpdir/boot/
    sudo cp System.map ./tmpdir/boot/
    
  6. Modify the boot loader:

    rm ./tmpdir/boot/loader/*
    cat << EOF | sudo tee -a ./tmpdir/boot/loader/ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff-${kernelversion}.aarch64.conf
    title Automotive Stream Distribution (${kernelversion}.aarch64) 9
    version ${kernelversion}.aarch64
    linux /Image-${kernelversion}
    devicetree /dtb-${kernelversion}/freescale/s32g399a-rdb3.dtb
    options root=/dev/mmcblk0p4 rw loglevel=4 efi=noruntime acpi=off console=ttyLF0,115200 module.sig_enforce=1 systemd.show_status=auto
    libahci.ignore_sss=1 slub_debug=FPZ fsck.mode=skip rcupdate.rcu_normal_after_boot=0 rcupdate.rcu_expedited=1
    grub_users $grub_users
    grub_arg --unrestricted
    grub_class autosd
    EOF
    
  7. Unmount the filesystem and detach the loop device:

    sudo umount ./tmpdir/boot
    sudo umount ./tmpdir
    losetup -D ${loopdev}
    
  8. Install the SBL binary, fip.s32, into the AutoSD image:

    sudo dd if=fip.s32 of=autosd-s32g_vnp_rdb3-developer-regular.img \
        skip=512 seek=512 iflag=skip_bytes oflag=seek_bytes \
        conv=fsync,notrunc
    

Next steps Now that you have installed the NXP kernel and SBL binary into the AutoSD image, you can flash the image onto the S32G board.

Flashing the AutoSD image onto the S32G board

After you customize the AutoSD image and install the NXP kernel and boot loader into the image, you can flash the image onto the S32G board.

Prerequisites

  • An SD card
  • An S32G board
  • An autosd-s32g_vnp_rdb3-developer-regular.img image

Procedure

  1. Flash the image onto an SD card, replacing _</dev/sdX>_ with your block device:

    sudo dd if=autosd-s32g_vnp_rdb3-developer-regular.img of={_</dev/sdX>_} \
            status=progress conv=fsync
    
  2. Plug in the SD card and start the system.

    Note

    Flashed u-boot supports EFI boot, so the system should boot without any user interaction.

  3. To see the output, log in to the serial port using default credentials:

    Automotive Stream Distribution 9
    Kernel 5.15.129-rt67 on an aarch64
    
    localhost login: root
    Password: password
    [root@localhost ~]#
    

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